Patient Education
At the O'Byrne Eye Clinic, our passion is caring for your eyes. Here, we offer information about common eye issues as well as eye diseases and disorders.
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Common Procedures
Allergies and the Eye
Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, or hay lover, is the most common allergic eye problem. There are various antihistamines, anti inflammatory and decongestant eye drops which can be used to help resolve this issue.
Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelash follicles, along the edge of the eyelid. It can be caused by seborrhea dermatitis or a bacterial infection, and sometimes a combination of both.
"Pinkeye,” the common name for conjunctivitis, is an infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the outer, normally clear, covering of the sclera (white part of the eye).
Dry Eyes
Most people's eyes produce tears at a slow and steady rate by tear glands located in the eyelids. In some cases, some people are not able to produce enough tears or they produce the inappropriate quality of tears to keep their eyes healthy and comfortable. This condition is known as dry eyes.
Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve, which is made up of approximately 2 million nerve fibers that transmit images from the eye to the brain.
Herpes Zoster
Most people who develop Herpes Zoster have been exposed to the chicken pox virus as children. In adulthood the virus can become reactivated, causing a rash of small blisters in the affected area. This is commonly known as "shingles”.
Refractive Surgery: LASIK/PRK
Laser in situ keratomileusis, or LASIK, is an outpatient surgical procedure used to treat myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. With LASIK, your ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.) uses a laser to reshape the cornea (the clear covering of the eye) to improve the way the eye focuses light rays onto the retina.
Strabismus refers to misaligned eyes. Strabismus can be subtle or obvious and can occur constantly or intermittently. It can affect only one eye or alternate between both eyes.
Described as a natural clouding of the eye lens, cataracts are common affecting about 20 million people worldwide.

Cornea and External Diseases
Corneal Abrasions and Corneal Erosions
Injuries to the epithelium, including cuts are scratches, are called abrasions. These injuries are usually accidents caused by finger nail scratches; make up brushes, paper cuts, or rubbing of the eyes.
Corneal Ulcers
Corneal ulcers may develop due to corneal trauma, eyelid disease, severe dry eyes, herpes simplex viral infections, fungal infections, parasitic infections, and most commonly by bacterial infections related to contact lens over wear.
Fuch’s Epithelial Dystrophy
This is a disorder of the innermost layer of the cornea, the endothelium. It is typically found in people over 50 years old and can lead over many years to significant loss of vision.
Herpetic Keratitis (Corneal Herpetic Viral Infections)
This is an infection of the cornea involving the herpes simplex virus that usually only affects one eye. It is most commonly superficial involving only the outermost layer of the cornea, the epithelium, and will most likely heal with appropriate treatment.
Keratoconus is a disorder that typically affects both eyes in which the cornea becomes thinner over time; eventually leading to a cone shaped protruding structure instead of a normal spherical one.
A Pterygium is the exuberant growth of the conjunctiva (the clear covering over the white part of the eye) over the cornea (the clear front structure of the eye). Pterygia often cause discomfort and redness and can be treated with eye drops or ointments. If it is very large, surgical removal may be necessary.

Refractive Errors
Astigmatism results in blurring of all images whether they are near or far. Astigmatism is very common affecting about 1 in 3 people, and is usually present at birth. Treatment options include glasses, contact lenses, or LASIK/PRK (laser vision correction).
When a person is farsighted, near images appear to be more blurry than those at a distance. Severe cases of farsightedness can affect distance as well. Treatment often includes glasses, contact lenses, or LASIK/PRK (laser vision correction).
When a person is nearsighted, images in the distance appear blurry. One may find that these images become clearer when you squint. Nearsightedness is commonly treated with either glasses, contact lenses, or both. It can also be corrected surgically by performing LASIK on PRK (laser vision correction).
Do you need reading glasses? Chances are, you have presbyopia, a disorder that causes a decrease in the eye's ability to focus, typically as a result of the natural aging process that everyone eventually experiences.

Retinal and Vitreous Disorders
Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)
AMRD is the degeneration and slow cell death of the macula, a very small central area of the retina that is responsible for fine detailed vision necessary for activities such as reading and driving. The main symptom of ARMD is the loss of central vision.
Floaters and Flashes
Floaters are particles that are located in the vitreous cavity (the inside cavity of the eye) and can appear as dots, lines, or cobwebs. Flashes of light are usually noticed when the vitreous shrinks and separates from the retina.
Macular Holes
Macular Holes are small round openings in the macular, which is the part of the retina responsible for central vision. This causes loss of central vision that is necessary to perform tasks such as reading, driving, watching TV.
Retinal Tears and Retinal Detachment
With age, the vitreous (the clear, gel substance that fills the inside of the eye) tends to change in consistency and come more watery. It also tends to shrink and as it does so it can pull away from its retinal attachments and cause a retinal tear.
Pre-Retinal Membrane (Macular Pucker)
A Macular Pucker occurs in the central part of the retina, called the macula, when scar tissue develops on the surface.
Diabetic Reinopathy
There are two types of diabetic retinopathy: non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy.
Vascular Occlusive Retinal Disorders
These disorders can involve either the venous or arterial vessels of the eye. Retinal vein occlusion is a blockage of the small veins that carry blood away from the retina.
Uveitis is a serious condition that, if left untreated, may cause permanent damage to the eye.



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